Effects of an App-Based Mindfulness Intervention on Sleep Duration and Sleep Latency: Income as a Moderator
Giovanni Alvarado, BA, Larisa Gavrilova, BA, Matthew J. Zawadzki, PhD
Sufficient research links poor sleep quality with health issues, thus efforts have been made to improve sleep. Previous research has shown positive effects of in-person mindfulness interventions on sleep quality. However, not much research has looked at the effects of mindfulness intervention delivered through a smartphone app on sleep and its potential benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine whether an in-app mindfulness intervention – Headspace – has significant effect on objectively assessed sleep duration and sleep latency. The study also assessed whether income moderates this relationship. We collected data from 142 employees from the University of California, Merced. Participants completed baseline surveys to assess for demographics and were instructed to wear a Fitbit Charge 2 device to collect data on sleep duration and sleep latency. Sleep data was collected at baseline and then five weeks after participants were randomly assigned to either the Headspace intervention or control group. ANOVA analysis revealed that, as expected, the groups did not differ on sleep outcomes at week 0. The Headspace group did not significantly differ from the control group at week 5, suggesting no effect of the app on sleep. Also, income was not found to be a significant moderator. Overall, Headspace did not affect an individual’s sleep and income played no role in this relationship.
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